The independent form consists of the combining stem with na added at the end. Quality: The object concords (obj) are used for the object of the verb, and are only used for transitive verbs and can be used to mark specificity and/or definiteness. It is equivalent to English forms like myself, yourself, himself and so on. The poem is constructed almost as if it were a history lesson focusing on paying respects to Shaka’s life. There are two different future tenses in Zulu, the immediate future and distant future. This is already evident in the example of ísifûba, where an underlying HH pattern is actually pronounced as FL (falling-low). When attached to the simple form, it has an indefinite meaning, like "of any", used with negative verbs. Sign in to disable ALL ads. Angiyokumsiza. They differ, however, in that they have one form for each possible class they can refer to. The poetic devices used in this poem are symbolism/imagery, personification or humanizing metaphor, concretive metaphor, alliteration, variation and anaphora. Click, in phonetics, a suction sound made in the mouth. The demonstrative pronouns in Zulu occur in three types: There is one pronoun for each noun class that may be pointed to. This image below of the figure of speech anacoluthon applies to Romans 5:12-21. Zulu. The subjunctive expresses hypothetical situations, wishes and requests. An exception applies for HH in the last two syllables: either the phrase-final HH rule will convert them to FL, the left deletion rule will delete the first H, giving LH, or the tone dissimilation rule will convert it into HL. Every noun stem (without the prefix) has an inherent tone pattern, where each syllable is inherently high (H) or low (L). The infix -ya- is used whenever the form has lengthening on the penultimate syllable, i.e. Zulu is a pro-drop language. (class 15 or 17), Uhamba ekuseni. From these, a special kind of verb called a stative verb can be formed, which describes being in the state of having completed that process, i.e. If it precedes, the noun appears in the simple form, while if it follows, the noun is in the full form. New verbs are readily created from simple verbs by attaching various suffixes to the stem, to get different shades of meaning. Four different kinds of verbal concord exist. with "whose" as a relative. The remote demonstratives in -yā́ likewise have final stress. It is placed after the noun that is possessed, and receives a special possessive prefix that agrees with the preceding noun's class. If you have always been craving to gain efficiency in English language and familiarize yourself with the figures of speech, here is your chance. See Also in Zulu. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Figurative language identify the figure of speech used in, Figures of speech quiz, Parts of speech work, Figures of speech, Work 1 identifying parts of speech, Parts of speech work 2, The 8 parts of speech diagnostic assessment, Figures of speech. They form a closed class; no new adjectives are created. The participial subject concords (subjP) are present whenever its verb is in participial form. Personification. Click sounds occur in a number of African languages and are often used as interjections in other languages—e.g., the sound of disapproval represented in English by tsk, tsk.That sound is an example of a dental click; to make it, the back of the tongue contacts the soft palate and the sides and tip of the tongue touch the teeth. There are present and past subjunctive forms. The copulative form of a noun expresses identity, and has a meaning similar to the English copula be. These are formed by prefixing the corresponding subject concords (see the verbs section) to the simple noun prefixes of classes 1 (singular) and 2 (plural). The different types of adjectives reflect the different prefixes that are used: Adjectives have the same tone classes that nouns do. Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a number. By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. "He talks while he eats." Some pronouns also have a separate possessive stem, which is the combining stem that is used when a possessive prefix is added. The class 1 and 2 forms are used as third-person pronouns, with yena meaning "he" or "she" and bona meaning "they". Amanani okukhuluma ku-zulu. No prefix may come between the object prefix and the stem. ", Ukhuluma edla. The letters in parentheses indicate additional letters that are added when the prefix is not at the start of the word, functioning to "save" the phonology from being violated or to avoid ambiguity. Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2020-05-20 However, it is a noun form rather than a verb, so no verb is needed, at least in the present tense. The demonstratives may stand alone, as true pronouns, but may also be used in combination with a noun, much like "this" and "that" in English. Since, poetry has so many things to learn about, it’s not at all easy to mug up all the instances where we are asked these in the poems. Exceptionally, the verb -za "to come" uses the prefix wo- instead, thus woza, wozani etc. They both share the same negative forms, however. Ngiyomsiza. ", Ngizomsiza. Kwenzeni! Usage Frequency: 1 Normally, verbs are cited in the stem of the principal present tense, which ends in -a, for example -wa "to fall", -dlá "to eat", -enza "to do, to make", -bôna "to see", -síza "to help", -sebénza "to work". The subject concord must always be present, except in the infinitive and imperative forms. word or phrase using figurative language—language that has other meaning than its normal definition A paradox is a figure of speech in which a statement appears to contradict itself. Note that in the most contracted form, the distinction between immediate and distant past entirely disappears. his nation, the Zulu nation. Another very interesting figure of speech is personification. This type of statement can be described as paradoxical. For example, the English adjective hungry translates to -lambile "be hungry", a stative verb. The following table lists these suffixes, and an example using the base verb -enza "to do, to make": Grammar of the Zulu language of Southern Africa, The Internal Structure of the Zulu DP, Merijn de Dreu, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zulu_grammar&oldid=1001162954, Articles needing examples from December 2018, Articles to be expanded from December 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2016, Articles with empty sections from December 2016, Articles to be expanded from November 2016, Articles with empty sections from November 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, ukúngayîdli "to not eat it" (class 4 or 9), Kwenze! Figures Os Speech - Displaying top 8 worksheets found for this concept.. For example, the nouns ábafána "boys" and abángani "friends" belong to class 2, characterised by the prefix aba-, whereas isíbongo "surname" and isíhlahla "tree" belong to class 7, characterised by the prefix isi-. Usage Frequency: 1 ‘The Birth of Shaka’ by Oswald Mtshali is a free verse poem about a South African warrior and ruler by the name of Shaka. The first form is the uncontracted form. Like the true adjectives, relatives have two concords, a regular concord and a shorter copulative concord. The following diacritical marks are used throughout this article to indicate aspects that the standard orthography fails to. [clarification needed]. THE ZULU GIRL Roy Campbell . With monosyllabic verbs, or verbs beginning with vowels, contraction only proceeds to level 3 so that the -ku- remains. For class 11 nouns, the plural is class 10. Prefixes are always attached in a fixed order; the object prefix always comes last, immediately before the verb stem, while the subject prefix comes before the object prefix. When the negative of the so-called "associative copulative" is formed. The figures of speech, as far as the English language is concerned, are all about rules. c/9 figures of speech. Stative verbs are formed similarly to the recent past, but with a few differences: there is a separate negative form, there is no shorter form ending in -ē, and no participial form. It’s only a scratch when referring to a deep or nasty wound. The locative form of pronouns is formed like it is for class 1 or 2 nouns, using the prefix ku- and no suffix. (10) It's almost a metaphor for immigrant life, which has to be retooled to succeed in America. Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. July 1787 – 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu (Zulu pronunciation: ), was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828. It corresponds to the English to-infinitive or gerund. Figures of speech used in the poem. It corresponds to the English simple present or continuous present. The opposite, of course, is an understatement that makes a situation seem less important. ", Woza lapha uzame futhi! Pronouns behave in many ways like nouns, having locative, possessive and copulative forms. figure noun. To express the negative of the copula, corresponding to English "is not" and similar, the prefix a- is added to the subject concord of the existing copulative. Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a number. When the noun is followed by the interrogative adjectives, After a negative verb, when the meaning is. isibalo, ukulinganisa, isithombe. / "Eating, he talks. MyMemory is the world's largest Translation Memory. "Do it!" ", Angizukwakha. Enumeratives use the enumerative concord. when it occurs finally in the sentence. ", Ngamtshela ahambe. The prefix yi- is used when the verb stem has only one syllable. Analytical English-Zulu Zulu-English dictionary at, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 14:14. Or, Tiger Woods was a half-decent golf player in his prime. For example: With nouns in class 1a, the prefix, extended with ka, is always attached to the simple form. ", Angizokumsiza. 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